IBAD / PVD
Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) is a thin film deposition process that combines evaporation with concurrent ion beam bombardment in a high vacuum environment. The concurrent ion bombardment differentiates IBAD from other thin film deposition techniques. It significantly improves adhesion, and permits control over film properties such as morphology, density, stress level, crystallinity, and chemical composition. Ion bombardment intermixes coating and substrate atoms and eliminates the columnar microstructure often observed in conventional, low temperature physical vapor deposition to create very dense, adherent film structures.